Today we celebrate Saint Valentine, the patron saint of customer verification methods

It’s one of my favourite days of the year today! I am a payments romantic, so you will undoubtedly know why! Today across the civilised world, we celebrate Saint Valentine, the patron saint of customer verification methods (CVMs). We buy flowers and eat chocolates on this day every year cto commemorate the introduction of chip and PIN. Yes, chip and PIN was launched in the UK on 14th February 2006. 

Yes, it’s lovely St. Valentine’s Day. Was it really thirteen years ago? The beautiful day, the day unromantically dubbed “chip and PIN day”, when we stopped pretending that anyone was looking at cardholders’ signatures on the backs of cards and instead mechanised the “computer says no” alternative. It really was! Thirteen years!

We English, we love out heritage. We still write our laws on vellum, we still say “what an interesting idea” when somebody says something that is transparently insane and, for now at least, we still use cards to buy things in shops. We cling to tradition. And chip and PIN is a tradition. Or at least it was.

I’m sorry to say that in Merrie England, chip and PIN is on the wane. The majority of card transactions are contactless and, according to Worldpay (who should know), they have been for a few months now. Fraud is manageable because most transactions are authorised online now and would be whether we had chip and PIN or not. The offline PIN and “floor limit” world has gone. The world’s first optimised-for-offline payment system was launched after the world had already got online. This is why you see  Brian Rommele writing that “by the time the UK implemented chip & PIN, the base concept and much of the technology was already almost 40 years old”.

Early chip and PIN focus group.

It is time to remind people what Saint Valentine stood for and reiterate why we are using chip and PIN at all. In ancient times, when European retailers could not go online to verify PINs due to the anticompetitive pricing of the monopoly public telephone providers, it made sense to verify the PIN locally (ie, offline). But this is 2019. We have smart phones and laser beams and holiday snaps of Ultima Thule. We can probably think about verifying PINs online again, or even replacing PINs with fingerprints or DNA or whatever.

Smart phone in particular mean change and, as I have bored people on Twitter senseless by repeatedly tagging “#appandpay rather than #tapandpay”, this will take us forward to a new retail payment environment in which the retail payment experience will converge across channels to the app. As payments shift in-app so the whole dynamic of the industry will change. Introducing a new payment mechanism faces the well-known “two-sided market” problem: retailers won’t implement the new payment mechanism until lots of consumers use it, consumers won’t use it until they see lots of retailers accepting it. This gives EMV a huge lock-in, since the cost of adding new terminals is too great to justify speculative investment.

When you go in-app, however, the economics change vastly. For Tesco to accept DavePay in store is a big investment in terminals, staff training, management and so on. But for the Tesco app to accept DavePay is… nothing, really. Just a bit of software. However traditional we might be, the marginal cost of adding new payment mechanisms is falling (particularly direct-to-account mechanisms because of open banking) and our industry needs to think about what that means.

I’m not saying that cards and PINs are going to go away any time soon, but what I am saying is that it’s time to start thinking about what might come next. Right now, that looks like smartphones with biometric authentication, but who knows what technologies are lurking around to corner to link identification and continuous passive authentication to create an ambient payments environment in which cards (and for the matter, terminals) are present only in a very limited number of use cases.

Happy Birthday Credit Card Industry

Today is a very important day for us payments nerds. It’s the 60th anniversary of the “Fresno Drop”, the birth of the modern credit card industry. On 18th September 1958, Bank of America officially launched its first 60,000 credit cards in Fresno, California, setting in motion an experiment that changed the American way of borrowing, paying and budgeting.

And, in time, changed everyone else’s way of doing those too.

If you want a good introduction to the history of the credit card, from the Fresno Drop up to the Internet, I’d recommend Joe Nocera’s “A Piece of the Action“, which I read many years ago and still pick up from time to time.

If you want to spend five minutes having a quick look at where the modern credit card business comes from, here’s the short version (courtesy of CNN Money)The most extraordinary episode in credit card history is the great Fresno Drop of 1958. The brainchild of a Bank of America middle manager named Joe Williams, the “drop” (which is marketing-speak for “mass mailing”) was an inventive tactic to give Americans their first highly addictive taste of credit card living. Keep in mind that charge cards in those days–like Diners Club or American Express–were mainly used by jet setters, businessmen on expense accounts, and ladies who lunched… Williams wanted to change that. In September 1958, he mailed out 60,000 credit cards, named BankAmericards, to nearly every household in Fresno. Mind you, these cards arrived in the mailboxes of people who had never seen–let alone applied for–a card like that. But now thousands of ordinary people suddenly found that thousands of dollars in credit had literally dropped into their laps…

There you go. Now you can go ahead and bore at least one person today with the story of the Fresno Drop. I know I will.

As you might expect, I cover this episode in my book Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin, where I point out that what is sometimes overlooked from our modern perspective is that the evolutionary trajectory of credit cards was not a simple, straight, onwards-and-upwards path. For the first decade or so, it was far from clear whether the credit card would continue to exist as a product at all, and as late as 1970 there were people predicting that banks would abandon the concept completely. What changed everything was a combination of regulation and technology: regulation that allowed banks to charge higher interest rates and the technology of the magnetic stripe and Visa’s BASE I online authorisation system. This changed the customer experience, transformed the risk management and cut costs dramatically while simultaneously allowing the banks to earn a profit from the business.

It looks more than a decade for the Fresno drop to turn into the mass market business, integral to the economy, that we know today. So what financial technology experiment of our days will be of similar magnitude a decade because of regulatory and technological change a year from now? My guess would be something to do with tokens, but I’d be curious to hear yours.

The law of entirely expected consequences case study: payment surcharges

Our Prime Minister, Mrs. Theresa May, went a bit Trump and tweeted. Cool. And here it is.


 The odd thing about this is that every single part of it is manifestly and demonstrably untrue. I’m genuinely baffled as to why Mrs. May (who spent 12 years working at the Association of Payments and Clearing Services, the precursor to UK Payments) should make such a transparently false claim to obtain credit for something that she should be against. To be clear: the charges were not hidden, the ban is not only on credit and debit card surcharges, and it won’t help millions of people to avoid rip-offs. Let me explain, starting with what I saw on 13th January when I went to pay for a flight on British Airways…

My first "no surcharge" purchase

Now normally when I use my BA Amex card to book a flight, I have to pay a credit card surcharge. I don’t mind paying the surcharge because I want the protections that the use of credit cards give me as a consumer and also because I want the frequent flier points I get for using this card. As of 13th January, I don’t. I get all this stuff for free because “new rules which will come into effect on 13 January 2018 will mean you cannot be penalised for choosing to pay by card, either online or in-store”. Happy days. Thank you Mrs. May!

Unfortunately, the entirely predictable result of this ban on card surcharges is that prices will go up.  For the press to say that ban has “backfired” because “consumers face higher prices and new ‘service charges’ as retailers and businesses plan to circumvent the Government’s ban” is laughable. The ban has worked entirely in accordance with the laws of economics.

To see why, let’s go back to Mrs. May’s odd social media message. First of all, the ban on card surcharges is not because of Mrs. May or the British government. It is because of the European Union’s Second Payment Services Directive (PSD2), although in the UK the government has gone further than PSD2 by, essentially, banning surcharges for all electronic payments not just the “four party” schemes. Thus it was the EU that banned “credit or debit card” surcharges, not the British Government, it is indeed the British Government, rather than the EU, that is making poor people pay for my air miles.

Now, just a quick recap of Economics 101. If the government passed a law that (for example) health care is free, that wouldn’t mean that doctors would start working for nothing. It would mean that doctors would have to paid in some other way (out of general taxation, for example). Similarly, passing a law that retailers cannot surcharge for cards doesn’t mean that everyone at Barclaycard is now working for free. Yes, the government has stopped retailers for charging for cards, but that does not mean that the costs are not going to go away. Chip and PIN terminals, 3D Secure gateways and Section 75 chargeback guarantees don’t grow on trees. What will happen?

Suppose you are an online merchant selling, oh I don’t know, let’s say Dungeons and Dragons miniatures. Let’s say your card service comes from a top quality merchant service provider who charges you 25p per transaction. From 13th January…

  1. Well, they could stop taking cards. But that would mean they lose business.

  2. They could have a loyalty scheme (spend £50, get £5 off your next purchase) but only for people who pay with cash.

  3. If half their sales are cash and half on card, then they could put the price of the average basket up by 10p. This is a nice simple solution and it’s good for me, since the customers who pay with cash are now subsidising my John Lewis cashback (since I’m only paying the extra 10p not the full 25p).

  4. Or they could try it on and add a service charge of 25p to all orders. This is what, for example, Just Eat have done.

But why should these dastardly people be allowed to get away with any of these options? Why shouldn’t they be forced to simply accept lower profits and a reduced standard of living as suggested by The Daily Telegraph which is upset that “retailers and other companies are planning measures to ‘sneak’ around the rules“. The dastardly plots unveiled by The Telegraph, precisely as you would expect from an analysis of the environment, are those that I outlined above: refusing card payments, increasing prices and introducing new ‘service charges’.

This is ridiculous from The Telegraph. Refusing to accept cards because the government has made it uneconomic is not sneaking around the rules, it is responding to the rules. And unless The Telegraph is proposing to step in and pay the cost of accepting cards for all merchants, neither is increasing shelf prices. In fact, I absolutely guarantee that prices will rise in accordance with basic laws of economics that The Telegraph should be familiar with. Unlike government ministers, apparently. The Economic Secretary to the Treasury, Mr. Stephen Barclay, said “these small charges can really add up and this change will mean shoppers across the country have that bit of extra cash to spend on the things that matter to them”. How? I have no idea. The UK travel industry, for example, pays around £150m per annum in card charges. Who does Mr. Barclay think is going to pay for the cards, terminals, fraud, bad debt, guarantees and all the rest of the infrastructure in the future? 

The result of banning card surcharges (ie, price-fixing for payment services) will be two-fold. First, it will push retailers into having their own apps that exploit open banking and use instant payments instead of cards. I can assure you that I won’t book a holiday or buy an expensive sofa this way: I want the legal protections that come with credit cards. However, the costs of accepting cards gives these merchants plenty of margin of to play so they will be able to incentive customers away from the existing rails. Second, it will transfer money from poor consumers who are trapped in the cash economy to people like me with cashback and airmiles cards. As the media have belatedly noticed (having not asked me about it in advance) “even those paying cash are set to lose out, as some companies – including food delivery firm Just Eat – plan to apply the cost increases to all customers

The outcome, as it happens, may be even more perverse. Since debit cards cost merchants less than credit cards, consumers switching to credit cards to get the rewards will mean the merchants overall bill for accepting cards will go up! This will hit hard in travel, for example, where “removing the surcharge will result in a significant shift away from payments by debit card and bank transfer so the increase [in extra costs] will be greater than the current credit card surcharge”. Not my words. “Greater than the current credit card surcharge”. So prices will rise by more than the current surcharge, despite Mr. Barclays’ odd prediction that shoppers around the current will have “that bit of extra cash”. No, shoppers around the country won’t. But certain shoppers (eg, me) will, because it the cost of the flight goes up by £1 but I would have had to pay a £2 service charge to use my rewards card before, I’m now saving a £1 and still getting the rewards.

I have long maintained that if you are going to regulate anything in this field then what you should do is require retailers to make the costs of payment choices clear and then let the market do the work. If the government wants to take action, it should adopt my plan to minimise the total social cost of payments and make debit cards the “zero”. In other words, companies should not be allowed to surcharge for debit cards and banks should be required to provide zero interchange debit cards as a condition of holding a retail banking licence. If companies want to surcharge for payment instruments that have a higher overall total social cost (cheques, cash, credit cards, charge cards, cowrie shells or euros) then that’s fine. And there would be a logic to it, unlike the current situation. Meanwhile, “consumer experts have called for regulatory enforcement to ensure businesses cannot dodge the rules“. 

This is absolutely hilarious. Who are these experts? What Soviet-style commission is going to take control of the taxi company’s pricing policy and decree what level of service charge, if any, is to be allowed? The whole situation is nonsensical. If the government, merchants or anyone else thinks that the costs of accepting cards are too high, then they are free to create an alternative that is less expensive. And if merchants want to know how to create an alternative lower cost option for customers *cough* open banking *cough* then they should feel free to call me and I’ll put them in touch with the right people (hint: Consult Hyperion).